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Chemistry

What is Chemistry?

Chemistry is the study of matter, its composition. properties and how it changes.  To be able to describe the ingredients in a cake and how they change when you bake the cake is called chemistry.

Matter is everything that has mass and takes up space, that is, everything that is physically real. Some things can be easily identified as matter: this book, for example. Others are not that obvious. Because we move through the air so easily, we sometimes forget that it is important.

Introduction to Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific term for compounds. Now we should note that compounds are substances that consist of atoms, i.e. they can be elements and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms.

In chemistry, we are now studying the composition, structure, properties, behavior of compounds, and the changes they experience during a reaction with other compounds.

Chemistry deals with topics such as the interaction of atoms and molecules through chemical bonds to new chemical compounds.

That means, how does an old connection break and how does a new connection form? Is there an energy change? And the answer to all of these questions is hidden in this term “chemistry”.

History of Chemistry

His understanding of chemistry may be bright and new, but chemistry itself has been around for a long time.

The basic chemistry comes from antiquity and comes from alchemists who were very thorough scientists. They conducted experiments and recorded their results, which is a key component of good science.

Modern chemistry dates from the 17th century and is considered one of the founders of this scientific field, Robert Boyle. Boyle is one of the developers of the scientific method, which is an organized series of steps to gain knowledge and answer questions.

Boyle believed in rigorous and proven experimentation and was a strong supporter of testing scientific theories before calling them “truths”.

Although this is not always considered a formal science, chemistry has been practiced throughout human history. People have been fermenting food and drinks for centuries. Extracting metal from minerals is another form of “natural” chemistry, such as making glass, soap, and extracting plant components for medical purposes. Archaeologists find ceramics at their archaeological sites, and both the pots and the enamels used to protect them come from chemical knowledge.

Chemistry for Beginners

Chemistry can be a difficult subject to learn, especially if you don’t study this complicated science properly. While there are no secret shortcuts that you can use to master chemistry overnight, you can make it easier by studying the right way.

Once you know how to best spend your learning time and prepare for class, you can focus on understanding the concepts better.

How to do Preparation for chemistry?

1. Check your math: 

There will be a number of formulas and equations that you will need to solve to learn chemistry. If you can’t remember how to solve quadratic equations or registers, you should examine some algebra problems. They help you solve similar problems in your chemistry courses.

2. Remember the periodic table:

Learning the elements is crucial for success in chemistry. Just as you would have a hard time with math if you didn’t know the difference between numbers, it’s important to learn the periodic table to learn more complex concepts in chemistry. A band called AsapSCIENCE has a 3 minute song called “The New Periodic Table Song“. (In the order) “, with which you can easily remember the periodic table.

3. Learn all the basics and learn step by step how to solve problems:

This would start with the basics of learning measurement systems, the scientific method, chemical nomenclature and atomic structure. The reason why many people find chemistry difficult is that they don’t fully understand these basic concepts before trying to study more advanced subjects. Many of the basic concepts of chemistry can be learned through university websites that provide free study materials. You can also find helpful instructions such as SparkNotes or “For Dummies” in your local bookstore. Write the concepts by hand. Studies have shown that when you write by hand, you tend to remember the concepts.

4. Make vocabulary cards:

Create a memory card for it every time you learn a new word or concept. This is ideal for the periodic table and many other principles. Check the cards several times a week to keep the information in mind.

5. Learn mnemonic storage techniques:

Try to think of each item as a different symbol, like an apple or a soccer ball. It can be anything you can think of when you think of the item. It may not seem intuitive, but creating strong associations makes it easier.

Branches of Chemistry

Chemistry is divided into several areas, including:

  • Organic chemistry that includes the study of all carbon-based compounds and life forms.
  • Inorganic chemistry is not very different from organic chemistry, but it also includes the study of all other elements and has a large overlap with the organic part.
  • The chemistry of the material includes the production, characterization and understanding of substances with a useful function.
  • Biochemistry is an in-depth study of the chemical interactions and reactions that take place in a living organism. It can be seen as a medical part of chemistry.
  • Nuclear chemistry includes the study of subatomic particles and the detailed study of atoms and nuclei.
  • Neurochemistry is an examination of neurochemicals, that is, damage, transmitters, peptides, proteins, etc., we can consider them as an examination of organisms at the genetic level.
  • Physical chemistry includes thermodynamics, kinetics, electrochemistry, spectroscopy, astrochemistry, etc. A large overlap is part of chemical physics.
  • Analytical chemistry examines the composition and structure of substances in order to better understand their properties.
  • Theoretical chemistry is also called quantum chemistry because it studies chemistry through fundamental and theoretical considerations or is basically the application of quantum mechanics in the field of chemistry.

There are many other fields as well, but it is not possible to understand all of the fields here.

Uses of Chemistry

  • We use Chemistry in the manufacture of artificial fertilizers. Without fertilizers, global agricultural production would not be enough to feed the world’s population.
  • Chemistry is used in the development and manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Drugs help cure many diseases that people have suffered and died from in the past.
  • Chemistry is used in the development and manufacture of synthetic fibers. Without synthetic fibers, the worldwide production of cotton and wool would not be enough to supply the world population.
  • Chemistry is used in the development and manufacture of fuels. Before the modern use of fuels as energy sources, the energy came from people, animals, wind, some waterfalls and the burning of firewood.
  • Chemistry is used in metallurgy. Metals and especially the most commonly used metals iron, copper and aluminum do not appear to be naturally free. They have to be isolated by chemical processes. (Incidentally, the word “metal” is derived from the Greek expression “met allon”, which means “with others”.)
  • Chemistry is used in the development and manufacture of synthetic materials, be it what we commonly refer to as plastics or building materials such as concrete.
  • Chemistry is used to understand and explain the biological processes and functions of living organisms.

Different types of chemistry jobs

It is not true to assume that a degree in chemistry will lead to life in the laboratory. In fact, only about a third of the graduates continue to work in the laboratory.

A degree in chemistry gives you skills that can be used in many roles, in different industries, and in different organizations, so you can take them to places you wouldn’t expect!

Here is a breakdown of some areas and some specific roles that you can consider if you want to study chemistry or have a recent degree in chemistry.

After studying chemistry, there are many options:

Job options

The works that are directly related to your title include:

  • Analytical chemist
  • Chemical engineer
  • Health scientist, clinical biochemist, forensic scientist
  • Nanotechnologist
  • pharmacologist
  • Research scientist (physics) toxicologist

Jobs where your title would be useful include:

  • Wirtschaftsprüfer environmental consultant
  • University lecturer
  • Nuclear engineer
  • Patent attorney
  • Science journalist
  • High school teacher

Best universities and institutes in Pakistan

  • University of Karachi
  • University of the Punjab
  • Lahore university of management sciences (LUMS)
  • Forman Christian College
  • NED University (Industrial Chemistry)

What you can do with university chemistry degree?

I write this because I would have liked to read it when I was 18 and was thinking about studying chemistry. I originally wanted to be an English student to become a writer.

I don’t regret my decision to go into chemistry, but so far it has been a journey that has been deeply satisfying, terrifying, and frustrating at the same time.

What does a chemist do?

There are two types of chemicals:

1. Chemists in the bank:

practicing wet chemistry, forming molecules, characterizing things, applying the scientific method, designing and carrying out experiments. Create magic.

2. Bank chemists:

Read, write, talk on the phone, go to meetings, travel, present, socialize and tell people to do or teach you things.

Most chemists practice chemistry all day in and out of the bank. This applies at all levels, but those with a bachelor’s degree usually work more in the bank under the supervision of people with more experience or training.

There is a wide range of work in chemistry, and this is most evident in the chemical industry, where most practicing chemists work. Left is 100% in the bank and this could be filled by someone with no bachelor’s degree. These positions are generally held under the name of a technician, operator, or associate scientist.

There are people with secondary school qualifications who know more about a certain subset of chemistry than full-time teachers with 30 years of teaching experience.

I know that because I’ve worked with both. We can illustrate this spectrum with a simple picture that I drew below, which roughly correlates with education. I think this number works for all chemists except for theoretical chemists (aren’t they just physical anyway?)

11th class chemistry notes pdf download

You can download 11th class chemistry notes from here.

11th class chemistry past papers karachi board

12th class chemistry notes pdf download

You can download 12th class chemistry notes from here.

12th class chemistry past papers karachi board

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